War Hospital (Capuchin Convent) - Brno, Czech Republic
Posted by: Groundspeak Premium Member puczmeloun
N 49° 11.473 E 016° 36.579
33U E 617280 N 5449959
Quick Description: Building of Capuchin Convent has served as a war hospital during the Napoleonic Wars
Location: Jihomoravský kraj, Czechia
Date Posted: 3/25/2014 5:26:48 PM
Waymark Code: WMKDFF
Published By: Groundspeak Regular Member Math Teacher
Views: 27

Long Description:
CS:
Brno v dobe napoleonských válek

Napoleonské války probíhaly mezi lety mezi lety 1803 až 1815, následující po revolucních válkách, které skoncily roku 1802. Tyto války se citelne dotkly i Brna. To se tak behem pár let stalo velkou ubytovnou pro vojáky a pozdeji ranené vojáky a civilisty.

Bitva u Slavkova se uskutecnila 2. prosince 1805. Nejprve byly opatreni ranení francouzsští vojáci. Magistrát spolu s výborem sháneli vše potrebné pro ranení. Pro strádající vojáky se varila polévka sv. Josefa. 4. prosince pribývalo ranených, zvlášte Francouzu, kterí byli ubytováni v nových kasárnách. Rusové a Rakušané byli ubytováni v minoritském kláštere, v sále ,,U krokodýla“, v sále v Lužánkách, v kláštere u sv. Tomáše, na brnenském biskupství, v káznici, v nemocnici u Milosrdných bratrí, zábrdovické nemocnici, v opatrovne a Schulzove továrne na Krenové (v bývalé nemocnici) atd. Celkem vzniklo 16 nemocnic. V kapucínském kláštere leželo v místnosti 6 ranených, na zemi až 12. Behem péce o ranené zemrelo nekolik minoritu. Zustali jen ctyri mniši. V techto klášterech leželo 1 000 ranených Rusu a Francouzu. V sále Reduty jich, dle tehdejších odhadu, bylo 1 200. V nemocnici zrízené z kláštera sv. Anny byli jen civilní nemocní, kterých pribývalo. Stupnovala se nouze o potraviny a následne vypukla epidemie. Pochování mrtvých nezpusobilo žádné vetší komplikace, mrtvoly se ukládaly do vykopaných šachet.

Napoleon opustil Brno 12. prosince v 5 hodin ráno, ta ním odjela také garda. Prišlo však jiné vojsko, Francouzi žádali ješte výpalné. Brno muselo zaplatit 100 000 franku. Mír mezi Rakouskem a Francií byl uzavren 26. prosince v Bratislave. Mír byl slavnostne ohlášen až 3. ledna. Vyhláškou to oznámil 4. ledna 1806 svobodný pán Roden.

EN:
Brno during Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic wars took place between the years 1803 to 1815, following the revolutionary wars which ended in 1802. These wars severely affected Brno, which in a few years became a big dormitory for soldiers and later as huge war/field hospital for wounded soldiers and civilians.

Especially after the Battle of Austerlitz (which took place on the December 2, 1805), there was established 16 war/field hospitals. In the Capuchin monastery, there lay in one room 6 wounded, and on the ground up to 12. During the care of the wounded died several local Conventual Franciscans and there stayed only four of them. In their monasteries lay around 1000 of wounded Russians and the French soldiers. In the hall of Reduta there was estimates around 1200 wounded.

Zdroj/Source: (visit link)

Church and Convent in Brno
Capuchins were invited to Bohemia during the pontificate of archbishop Zbynek Berka of Dube. First mission group came to Prague under leadership of saint Laurentius of Brindisi in the evening 13th Nov. 1599. The fundamental stone of monastery in Prague-Hradcany was prostrated on 3rd November 1600. Hradcany became a mother monastery for Bohemian-Moravian Capuchin Province.

Building of the monastery in Brno was ratified in spring 1604 with help of cardinal Frantisek from Ditrichstein and Ladislav Berka from Dube. This firs house was built in two years out of the town walls, closed to Meninska gate. However already in 1645, when Brno was beseiged by Swedish army, the monastery was broken down not to serve as base for enemies. Till the building the new monastery Capuchins lived in private house on Great place (now Namesti svobody) and divine services were at Church of saint Nicolas.

Capuchins' Gardens After several years of complications a new locality on Coal market was chosen, where in 1648 count Frantisek Magnis dedicated three houses to Capuchins, on whose place new monastery was built up. Other houses were bought in 1650, so the final count of them was ten. Capuchin church was raised through expenses of count Pavel Krystof Lichtenstein – Kastelkorn and partly from gifts of others. Because monastery with its gardens is right by town walls, a contract between municipal authorities and Capuchins was bargained and friars must promise free enter for army in emergency. Capuchin church and monastery were built by the project of Ondrej Erna in 1648–1651. Capuchin church was constructed according to habits and principles of Order, that return to original ideals of poverty pronounced by saint Francis of Assisi. Its appearance is conformable to other Capuchin churches over the world build up by course of Italian model created by Antonio of Pardenone, friar of Venetia province.

Forefront of the Church Elevation of the holy Cross Church is simple early baroque building. Plain facade is animated through three windows and mosaic of saint Francis preaching to beards, which have substituted former fresco of Elevation the holy Cross by Josef Rotter. Also the monastery buildings have simple facades and square yard.

Trenck's house After the middle of 18th century baroque rebuilding by Frantisek Antonin Grimm was done. Then two chapels (saint Francis and saint Fidel) were added to church. The result of it is also main forefront of the church, stairs and terrace with statues of Capuchins saints. All of them are works of J.A. Nesmann except saint Laurencius of Brindisi created in twenties of 20th century by Cenek Vosmik on a position of former Trinity statue. The Trenck's situated to the right of the church portal was also built in the 18th century. A valuable Capuchin library is situated there. Its interior of is storied by ancstral rococo furniture and ceiling fresco - a disputation between saint Bonaventura and saint Thomas Aquinas. Facade of the Trenck's house is from the beginning of the 20th century.

Church Interior Although the simple front of the Church makes an illusion of scanty inner, the interior has a big artificial value. Especially an alltar picture with Invention of the Cross painted in 1655 by Dutch engraver and painter Joachim Sandrart (born 1606 in Frankfurt am Main and dead 1688 in Nuremberg) has high quality. Paintings on shrines with later baroque statues are works of painter living Brno Josef Rottr (born 1701 in Opava, dead 1763 in Brno). In aisle on console is placed valuable polychrome gothic carving with Madonna Immaculate form 1st half of the 15th century.

Source: (visit link)
Address:
Klášter kapucínů Kapucínské nám. 303/5 602 00 Brno


Name of War: The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)

Type of Documentation: Web Page/Historical Documentation

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