The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present - Athens, Greece
Posted by: Groundspeak Premium Member Marine Biologist
N 37° 58.293 E 023° 43.576
34S E 739473 N 4206165
Quick Description: The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present was written by Jenifer Neils and provides an overview of the Parthenon from its ancient past to modern day.
Location: Greece
Date Posted: 1/22/2011 2:14:08 PM
Waymark Code: WMAJQF
Published By: Groundspeak Charter Member Bryan
Views: 20

Long Description:
"The Parthenon is a temple in the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their protector. Its construction began in 447 BC and was completed in 438 BC, although decorations of the Parthenon continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece and of Athenian democracy and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. The Greek Ministry of Culture is currently carrying out a programme of selective restoration and reconstruction to ensure the stability of the partially ruined structure.

The Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, that was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon was used as a treasury. For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the 5th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. After the Ottoman Turk conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early 1460s, and it had a minaret built in it. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman Turk ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment. The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. In 1806, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures, with the Ottoman Turks' permission. These sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles or the Parthenon Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British Museum in London, where they are now displayed. The Greek government is committed to the return of the sculptures to Greece, so far with no success."

-- Source

The following description of the book is from Amazon.com:

"This volume offers an overview of the Parthenon from antiquity to the modern era. Recent discoveries, such as the marble sculpture fragments found during the current restoration work on the Acropolis, or a vase excavated in Northern Greece whose decoration echoes a lost pedimental composition, have forced scholars to reconsider many aspects of one of the most important monuments of classical antiquity. Bringing together essays on various aspects of this world-renowned temple, this book examines the dramatic setting of the temple and its impact on modern architects such as Le Corbusier; new reconstructions and interpretations of Pheidias' vast sculptural program; in-depth analysis of architectural refinements; the techniques employed in making the colossal gold-and-ivory cult statue; and a consideration of the Christian and Muslim phases of the Parthenon's history. Collectively, they enhance our understanding of one of the icons of Western art."

ISBN Number: 0521164826

Author(s): Jenifer Neils

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