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Malé pevnostní mesto Terezín / Former military fortress Terezín - Czech Republic
Posted by: Groundspeak Premium Member puczmeloun
N 50° 30.866 E 014° 08.652
33U E 439324 N 5596179
Quick Description: Malé pevnostní mesto Terezín / Former military fortress Terezín
Location: Ústecký kraj, Czechia
Date Posted: 9/8/2014 5:39:27 PM
Waymark Code: WMMECV
Published By: Groundspeak Premium Member lumbricus
Views: 20

Long Description:
CS:
Terezín (nemecky Theresienstadt) je malé pevnostní mesto nacházející se v okresu Litomerice, kraj Ústecký, pouze 2 km jihovýchodne od Litomeric, pri rece Ohri nedaleko jejího soutoku s Labem. Mesto leží na obou stranách reky, které je rozdeluje na Malou a Velkou pevnost Terezín. Terezínem též pred stavbou dálnice D8 procházela státní silnice 8, která byla zároven mezinárodní silnicí E 55 na trase Praha – Dráždany (dnes silnice II/608). Soucástí Terezína jsou také tri sousední vesnice: Ceské Kopisty, Nové Kopisty a Pocaply.

Zdroj: (visit link)

EN:
History
On 10 January 1780, the Habsburg emperor Joseph II ordered the erection of the fortress, named Theresienstadt after his mother Empress Maria Theresa. In the times of Austria–Prussia rivalry, it was meant to secure the bridges across the Ohre and Elbe Rivers against Prussian troops invading the Bohemian lands from neighbouring Saxony. Simultaneously, Josefov Fortress (Josephstadt) was erected near Jaromer as a protection against Prussian attacks.
Construction of Terezín started at the westernmost cavalier on 10 October 1780 and lasted ten years. The fortress consisted of a citadel, the "Small Fortress" (Kleine Festung), to the east of the Ohre, and a walled town, the "Main Fortress" (Große Festung), to the west. The total area of the fortress was 3.89 km². In peacetime it held 5,655 soldiers, and in wartime around 11,000 soldiers could be placed here. Trenches and low-lying areas around the fortress could be flooded for defensive purposes.
The fortress was never under direct siege. During the Austro-Prussian War, on 28 July 1866, part of the garrison attacked and destroyed an important railway bridge near Neratovice (rail line Turnov - Kralupy nad Vltavou) that was shortly before repaired by the Prussians.[1] This attack occurred two days after Austria and Prussia had agreed to make peace, but the Terezin garrison was ignorant of the news.
During the second half of the 19th century, the fortress was also used as a prison. During World War I, the fortress was used as a political prison camp. Many thousand supporters of Russia (Russophiles from Galicia and Bukovina) were placed by Austro-Hungarian authorities in the fortress. Gavrilo Princip, who assassinated Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife, died there of tuberculosis in 1918.
With the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, the town became part of the newly formed state of Czechoslovakia. It was located in an area with a high proportion of ethnic German population, known as the Sudetenland. Nazi Germany used this populations of ethnic Germans as a rationale for expansion of the borders of the Fatherland. In 1938 it annexed the Sudetenland. It then followed in 1939 by occupying the rest of Bohemia and Moravia part of Czechoslovakia.

Terezín during World War II
By 1940 Germany assigned the Gestapo to adapt Terezín, better known by the German name Theresienstadt, as a ghetto and concentration camp. Considerable work was done in the next two years to adapt the complex for the dense overcrowding the inmates were subjected to. It held primarily Jews from Czechoslovakia, as well as tens of thousands of Jews deported chiefly from Germany and Austria, as well as hundreds from the Netherlands and Denmark. More than 150,000 Jews were sent there, including 15,000 children.
Although it was not an extermination camp, about 33,000 died in the ghetto. This was mostly due to the appalling conditions arising out of extreme population density, malnutrition and disease. About 88,000 inhabitants were deported to Auschwitz and other extermination camps. As late as the end of 1944, the Germans were deporting Jews to the death camps. At the end of the war, there were 17,247 survivors of Theresienstadt (including some who had survived the death camps).
Part of the fortification (Small Fortress) served as the largest Gestapo prison in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. It was on the other side of the river from the ghetto and operated separately. Around 90,000 people went through it, and 2,600 died there.
The complex was taken over for operation by the International Red Cross on May 2, 1945, with the Commandant and SS forces fleeing within the next two days. Some were later captured. The camp and prison were liberated on 9 May 1945 by the Soviet Army.

Terezín after World War II
After the German surrender the small fortress was used as an internment camp for ethnic Germans. The first prisoners arrived on May 10, 1945. On February 29, 1948 the last German prisoners were released and the camp was officially closed.
Among the interned Germans were former Nazis like Heinrich Jöckel, the former commander of Terezín and other SS members. A great group of internees was arrested simply because of their German nationality, among them young boys or elderly people.
In the first phase of the camp lasting until July 1945 mortality was high due to diseases, malnutrition and incidents of simple outright murder. Commander of the camp in that period was Stanislav Franc. He was guided by a spirit of revenge and tolerated whimsical mistreatment of the prisoners by the guards.
In July 1945 the camp shifted under the control of the Czech ministry for domestic affairs. The new commander appointed was Otakar Kálal. From then on the inmates were gradually transferred to Germany and Terezín was increasingly used as a hub for the forced migration of Germans from the Czech lands into Germany proper.

Source: (visit link)
The year the "Fort" was constructed or started.: 10 January 1780

Name of "Country" or "Nation" that constructed this "Fort": Habsburg empire

Was this "Fort" involved in any armed conflicts?: Yes it was

What was the primary purpose of this "Historic Fort"?: For protecting a travel or shipping route

Current condition: Good

This site is administered by ----: Terezín

If admission is charged -: 0.00 (listed in local currency)

Open to the public?: Open or unrestricted access.

Official or advertised web-page: [Web Link]

Link to web-site that best describes this "Historic Fort": [Web Link]

Link if this "Fort" is registered on your Countries/ State "Registry of Historical Sites or Buildi: Not listed

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    Petrs11 visited Malé pevnostní mesto Terezín / Former military fortress Terezín - Czech Republic 5/24/2014 Petrs11 visited it