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Warm Springs Reservation, Tenino, Wasco and Paiute -
Posted by: Groundspeak Premium Member dkestrel
N 44° 45.800 W 121° 14.943
10T E 638568 N 4958151
Quick Description: The reservation was created by treaty in 1855 for thte three tribes that form the Warm Springs confederation: the Wasco, Tenino (Warm Springs) and Paiute.
Location: Oregon, United States
Date Posted: 2/10/2014 1:58:32 PM
Waymark Code: WMK48V
Published By: Groundspeak Premium Member lumbricus
Views: 2

Long Description:
The Warm Springs and Wasco bands gave up ownership rights to a 10,000,000-acre area, which they had inhabited for over 10,000 years, in exchange for basic health care, education, and other forms of assistance as outlined by the Treaty with the Tribes of Middle Oregon (June 25, 1855). Other provisions of the Treaty of 1855 ensured that tribal members retained hunting and fishing rights in the "Natural and Accustomed Area" which they had vacated. These treaty hunting and fishing rights are rights that were retained by the tribe and are not "special rights" granted by the U.S. government.

In 1879, the U.S. government moved a small group of Paiutes to the reservation in spite of that tribe's history of conflict with Columbia River tribes.

The reservation lies primarily in parts of Wasco County and Jefferson County, but there are smaller sections in six other counties; in descending order of land area they are: Clackamas, Marion, Gilliam, Sherman, Linn and Hood River counties. (The Hood River County portion consists of tiny sections of non-contiguous off-reservation trust land in the northeast corner of the county.) The reservation is 105 miles (170 km) southeast of Portland.

The reservations's only significant population center is the community of Warm Springs, (also known as the Warm Springs Agency) which comprises over 73 percent of the reservation's population.

Like the Grand Ronde Agency in western Oregon, the Warm Springs Reservation is one of the last holdouts in the U.S. of speakers of the Chinook Jargon because of its utility as an inter-tribal language. The forms of the Jargon used by elders in Warm Springs vary considerably from the heavily-creolized form at Grand Ronde.

Kiksht, Numu and Ichishkiin Snwit languages are taught in the Warm Springs Reservation schools.

In 1964, the first part of the Kah-nee-ta resort was completed—Kah-nee-ta Village—a lodging complex with a motel, cottages and tipis.
As of 2003, the reservation was home to a tribal enrollment of over 4200. The biggest source of revenue for the tribes are hydroelectric (Warm Springs Power Enterprises) projects on the Deschutes River. The tribes also operate Warm Springs Forest Products Industries.
Many tribal members engage in ceremonial, subsistence, and commercial fisheries in the Columbia River for salmon, steelhead, and sturgeon. Tribal members also fish for salmon and steelhead for subistence purposes in the Deschutes River, primarily at Sherars Falls. Tribal members also harvest Pacific Lamprey at Sherars Falls and Willamette Falls. The tribe's fishing rights are protected by treaty and re-affirmed by court cases such as Sohappy v. Smith and United States v. Oregon.


The Indian Head Casino on U.S. Route 26 opened in February 2012. It has 18,000 square feet of gaming space, with 500 slot machines and 8 blackjack tables. The tribes expect the casino to net $9 to 12 million annually.
The casino previously operated at Kah-Nee-Ta, where it had only 300 slot machines and made $2 to 4 million a year. The new location was intended to be more accessible to travelers, but the tribes consider it temporary until their proposed Columbia River Gorge casino can be built.
(Information acove is taken from the Wikipedia entry "Warm Springs Indian Reservation")

A very interesting part of the reservation is the Warm Springs Museum for which coordinates are given below. Nationally acclaimed for both its striking architecture and outstanding exhibitions, The Museum at Warm Springs was conceived of and created by The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs to serve as a living legacy of our culture. The Museum's permanent collection of treasured artifacts, historic photographs, murals, graphics, and rare documents is a dynamic, comprehensive chronicle of Tribal history. Interactive, multimedia exhibits that include a Wasco wedding, song chamber, and traditional Hoop Dance offer guests a living experience of life on the Reservation.
Type of Nation Within: Native American Indian Reservation (USA)

Tribe or Band: Tenino, Wasco and Paiute

Address of Main Entrance to area:
Hwy 26
Warm Springs,


Land Area - Specify Acres or Miles: 1,019.385 sq mi

Population: 4000

Date when area was established or set aside: 6/25/1855

Open or Closed to Public: Open To Public

Website for further information: [Web Link]

Coordinates of site within area to visit: N 44° 45.800 W 121° 14.943

Visit Instructions:
Only one waymark per area (reservation) will be accepted, although you may log visits anywhere within the reservation because they oftentimes cover a large area. To log a visit to the waymark, please provide a photo of signage recognizing the area and a photo from within the area.
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DocDTA visited Warm Springs Reservation, Tenino, Wasco and Paiute - 8/16/2014 DocDTA visited it