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Monarchs – King Richard II of England on side of city hall - Bradford, UK
Posted by: Groundspeak Premium Member dtrebilc
N 53° 47.567 W 001° 45.188
30U E 582135 N 5961188
Quick Description: This statue of King Richard II is one of 34 statues high up on the wall of Bradford City Hall.
Location: Yorkshire, United Kingdom
Date Posted: 4/2/2011 1:40:24 PM
Waymark Code: WMB41A
Published By: Groundspeak Premium Member The Blue Quasar
Views: 0

Long Description:
The statues are the rulers of England from King William I in 1066 up to and including Queen Victoria who was on the throne when the then Town Hall was built in 1873.

King Richard II was born on 6 January 1367 and died on 14th February 1400. He reigned as King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.

Richard’s father, Edward the Black Prince was heir to the throne of England but he caught dysentery whilst fighting in the 100 years war with France. He died of his illness in 1376 and Richard then became heir to the throne when he was only 9 years old.

The Commons in Parliament feared that Richard’s Uncle, John of Gaunt would try to usurp Richard from the throne so to strengthen his claim the invested Richard as the Prince of Wales. The next year Edward III, Richard’s grandfather died and Richard was crowned the King of England at the age of 10.

Normally in these circumstances a Regent would be appointed to rule on behalf of the King until he attained his majority, however the Commons in Parliament still did not trust John of Gaunt. A series of “continual councils” helped the Richard in his reign.

Between 1377 and 1381 there was a series of unsuccessful military expeditions on the Continent of Europe, and a number of heavy taxes had been levied.

The lower classes of society had a deep felt resentment of these taxes. In addition since the Black Death, the hold that Lords had over the peasants on their land had decreased. These 2 factors led to unrest and a Peasants Revolt led by Wat Tyler.

There was great deal of unrest and looting around London and The Archbishop of CanterburySimon Sudbury, who was also Lord Chancellor, and the king's Lord High Treasurer, Robert Hales, were both killed by the rebels. The young king rode out to meet the peasants and hold talks with Tyler on a couple of occasions. On the last meeting there was an argument and the Lord Mayor of London pulled Tyler from his horse and killed him.

This was a potentially dangerous situation but the young Richard managed to calm the situation and lead the crowd away, pardoned them and allowed them to return to their homes.

However disturbances continued and Richard revoked the pardon. He then led his army and defeated the rebels at Billericay.

Although at the time it was felt that Richard had handled the situation really well, it is believed that this experience led him to mistrust people and he tended to believe that Monarchs had an absolute right to rule.

Richard undertook unsuccessful invasions of both France and its ally Scotland without success. This led in 1386 in further attempts increase taxes. Parliament refused and a commission was set up to review and control Royal finances for a year.

This so upset that Richard toured his kingdom trying to gain support. He gathered a number of supporters and also got a legal ruling that the parliament had acted unlawfully and treasonably. However Parliament also had supporters who won out, and a number of Richard’s men were executed.

In 1389 when Richard became 21 he assumed full control of government and blamed his previous difficulties with Parliament on bad councillors.

He now formed a policy of seeking peace with France and greatly reducing taxation and then In 1396 a 28 year truce was signed with Charles VI of France.

In the meantime there had been trouble in Ireland and Richard had led troops over there on a few occasions.

Whilst he was in Ireland in 1899 some of the Barons with which he had previous disputes, rebelled against him. Most of Richard’s supporters were over in Ireland with him and so the rebels were able to take over in England. Back in England Richard surrendered to Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland, and then abdicated.

In theory Henry was 2nd in line to the throne, the first in line was actually thought to be Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March. However Henry claimed precedence because his claim was through the male line rather than the female line.

Henry was accepted by Parliament and crowned King Henry IV on 13th October 1399.

Richard II died in captivity and there is some controversy over the cause of death and the exact date, but is widely reported as 14th February 1400.
Monarch Ranking: King / Queen

Proper Title and Name of Monarch: By the Grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland

Country or Empire of Influence: England, Ireland and Aquitaine

Website for additonal information: [Web Link]

Visit Instructions:

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