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Pevnost Josefov / Fort Josefov, Jaromer, CZ
Posted by: Groundspeak Premium Member Roman_Jaromer
N 50° 20.260 E 015° 55.490
33U E 565813 N 5576584
Quick Description: Bastionová pevnost nad soutokem rek Labe a Metuje u mesta Jaromer z roku 1787 / Bastion fortress above the confluence of the rivers Elbe and Metuje near the city Jaromer from year 1787
Location: Královéhradecký kraj, Czechia
Date Posted: 12/13/2010 7:21:55 AM
Waymark Code: WMAADB
Published By: Groundspeak Charter Member briansnat
Views: 92

Long Description:
[CZ]
Pevnost Josefov je bastionová pevnost postavená podle projektu francouzského inženýra Ludvíka Querlonde du Hamela.
Sice jako pevnost již mesto dlouho neslouží, dodnes však má Josefov své kouzlo a mužete tu nalézt spoustu zajímavých míst spjatých s vojenskou historií pevnosti.
At už se jedná o podzemní chodby, které mužete navštívit na výchozích souradnicích, tak vojenské historické muzeum nebo pevnostní objekt Ravelin XIV.

Historie Josefova:
Pevnost Josefov byla postavena v letech 1780 až 1787 z podnetu císare Josefa II. Mela sloužit k ochrane zemských hranic proti výbojnému Prusku. Dobývání pevností patrilo tehdy k vojenské strategii každé evropské armády. Projekt pevnosti zpracoval francouzský inženýr v habsburských službách generál Duhamel de Querlonde, který stavbu zpocátku také rídil. V pomerne krátké dobe vznikla nad soutokem rek Labe a Metuje mohutná bastionová pevnost, jedna z nejmodernejších a nejvýznamnejších v habsburské monarchii. Patrila k vrcholným dílum evropského pevnostního stavitelství. V prípade obležení ji melo bránit až 12 000 vojáku. Pevnost byla od pocátku stavena jako mesto, proto je též významným urbanistickým celkem s pravoúhlou ulicní sítí a domovní zástavbou. Hlavní vojenské budovy nesou rysy empirového slohu. Dominantou Josefova je posádkový kostel a jeho zdaleka viditelná vež.

V období napoleonských válek se Josefov nekolikrát pripravoval na obléhání. Vojenskou slávu v boji však nezískal ani za války prusko-rakouské v roce 1866. Pruské vojsko se pri svém tažení obléháním pevnosti nezdržovalo a v bezpecné vzdálenosti ji obešlo. Vojenská strategie se již výrazne zmenila. Roku 1888 prišel Josefov o pevnostní statut. Vojenská posádka tu však zustala a garnisona nedílne patrila k mestu dalších sto let.

Za 1. svetové války byl v Josefove zrízen velký zajatecký tábor, kterým prošlo nekolik desítek tisíc Rusu, ale i Ukrajincu, Srbu, Italu aj. Behem fašistické okupace byla v Josefove umístena nemecká posádka a v letech 1968 - 1991 zde mela posádku sovetská armáda. Nynejší pokracovatelkou vojenské tradice Josefova je nevelká posádka Armády CR.
Obrana a opevnení josefovské pevnosti spocívala v mohutných bastionových hradbách, palebné síle pevnostního delostrelectva, inundacních (zátopových) kotlinách a predevším rozsáhlém podzemním obranném systému. Vnitrní zástavba pevnostního mesta a jeho obranná zarízení jsou zachovány v pomerne velkém rozsahu. Každým rokem se opravuje nekterý památkove chránený objekt. Pozoruhodným místem pro návštevníky mesta je vojenský hrbitov.

Josefov se stal v roce 1948 soucástí mesta Jaromere. V roce 1971 byl prohlášen mestskou památkovou rezervací. Svým charakterem je plne srovnatelný s Terezínem, ale i dalšími evropskými pevnostními mesty.

Další odkazy na stránky o pevnosti Josefov:
(visit link)
(visit link)
(visit link)

[EN]
Fortress Josefov is built according to project French engineer Louis du Hamel Querlonde.
Although as a fortress city has long been serving, but still has its charm and can be found here many interesting points connected with the history of military strength.
Whether it is an underground passage, you can visit the original coordinates, and military history museum and citadel Ravelin XIV.

History of Josefov:
The fortress of Josefov was built during the years 1780 through 1787 under the auspices of Josef II, the emperor of the Austrian Empire. The purpose of the fortress was to defend the empire against the threat posed by Prussia.

Fortresses of this type played an important role in the military strategies of that time. The fortress of Josefov was designed by the French general Duhamel de Querlonde, who also supervised the very beginning of its construction. This huge fortress was built in a short period of time, roughly seven years. It is located close to two rivers, the Elbe and the Metuje. It was one of the most important fortresses in the monarchy, the masterpiece of military construction engineering at that period of time. Up to twelve thousand soldiers could be accommodated within the premises in case of emergency. The fortress was also designed to function as a town and it is, in this sense, an important architectural achievement with its rectangular design of streets and buildings. The main buildings were designed in the Empire style, and the most important landmark, the town church, can be seen from a great distance.

During the Napoleonic wars the town of Josefov was in a state of alert several times but did not participate in any fighting. It was not involved in any fighting in the Prussian-Austrian war in 1866 either. Prussian troops did not intend to get delayed there and circled the fortress at a safe distance. The military strategy changed, and in 1888 the town of Josefov lost its official status as a military fortress. However, a large number of troops still remained stationed in the town's barracks for another 100 years.

During WWI a large camp with thousands of POWs was located in the town. Tens of thousands of Russians, Ukrainians, Serbs, Italians, and prisoners of other nationalities were kept there. German troops were stationed in Josefov during WWII. The Red Army took over Josefov during the Soviet Invasion in 1968 and withdrew in 1991. Nowadays, only a minute number of military personnel are located in the town.

The defense of Josefov as a fortress insisted on walled fortifications, also called bastions, the firepower of heavy artillery, inundation areas by the river, and, most important of all, the underground defense system. The inner part of the town with its fortifications is well-preserved, and buildings are maintained and repaired on a regular basis. The military cemetery located close to the town is also worth mentioning.

Josefov became a part of the town of Jaromer in 1948. In 1971 the town of Josefov was named a historic preservation site. The town of Josefov is comparable to Terezin, (another fortified town of that period) and other fortified towns

Next links about fort Josefov:
(visit link)
(visit link)
The year the "Fort" was constructed or started.: 1787

Name of "Country" or "Nation" that constructed this "Fort": Rakousko - Uhersko / Austrian Empire

Was this "Fort" involved in any armed conflicts?: No it wasn't

What was the primary purpose of this "Historic Fort"?: Used for defence of a border or land claim.

Current condition: Mnoho objektů zničených, ale spousta obranných prvků je stále zachovalých / Many buildings destroyed, but many elements of the defense is still preserved

This site is administered by ----: Museum

If admission is charged -: 0.00 (listed in local currency)

Open to the public?: Open or unrestricted access.

Official or advertised web-page: [Web Link]

Link to web-site that best describes this "Historic Fort": [Web Link]

Link if this "Fort" is registered on your Countries/ State "Registry of Historical Sites or Buildi: Not listed

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